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Degree Adverb / Intensifier

so many friends = tant d'amis
so few friends = si peu d'amis
so much time = tant de temps
so little time = si peu de temps

to an abnormally high/low degree

It's so cold in here! Il fait si froid, là.
It was so good to see you! C'était si bien de te voir!
I had so hoped to see you again. J'avais tant espéré te revoir.
Thanks so much! "so much" is more formal than "a lot"


to an abnormally average degree :)

-- Well, was the film any good? et le film, c'était bien?
-- Meh. It was pretty so-so. meuh, c'était plutôt moyen (comme çi, comme ça)

Anaphoric Pronoun

definition: " Anaphoric pronoun refers to a pronoun which 'refers back' to another constituent in the sentence."

definition crowd-sourced from glottopedia


  • Using vulgar language is frowned upon in this house. Those who persist in doing so will be politely asked to buzz off.

  • Queen: Will you finish tonight?
  • Servant: I think so.
  • Queen: Make it so.

  • Adult: Go to your room.
  • Young child: Why?
  • Adult: Because I said so.

  • song on radio: Everything's going to be alright.
  • driver(s), alone in their car(s): If you say so.

  • Parent #1: Did she really finish all her homework?
  • Parent #2 (a bit doubtful): So she says.

  • Margot: How do you turn this light off?
  • Matt: There's a button underneath.
    Margot picks up the lamp and looks underneath.
  • Margot: So there is. That's a strange place for a button.

brother: my toast is cold. sister: so is mine.

language learner: my taylor is rich. life learner: so he is.

Cf. ainsi soit-il (so be it)

So + AUX + NP

  • -- I went to Lyon this weekend.
-- So did I.
  • -- We are going to Marseille next weekend.
-- So is Martin.
  • -- This machine has been unplugged.
-- So have these.

Contrasts with neither for negative assertions.

  • -- I didn't go to Lyon this weekend.
-- Neither did I.
  • -- We aren't going to Marseille next weekend.
-- Neither is Martin.
  • -- This machine hasn't been unplugged.
-- Neither have these.


so can introduce a content clause, containing a consequence.

I rebooted the computer so (that) it would run faster.
The doctor put his leg in a cast so (that) it would heal.
He took his meds, so he is calmer now.

Cf. afin que, alors, donc

Discourse Marker

Indicates that someone is seeking input (an answer to a question, a readiness to move on...)

So? Shall we go?
So? What are you going to do about it? (sometimes pronounced 'wɒtʃ ə 'gaʊn ə 'doʊ ə 'baʊt ɪt ?)
So. What do you think?

Cf. (et) alors (?)


so ADJ as is quite rare today, except in special circumstances. Cf. as

Would you be so kind as to give me your name? (silly formula, often a bit snarky)
May I be so bold as to suggest that you resign, your Majesty?

not so ADJ as to is not soooo... uncommon:

She was not so hungry as to steal food, but...

wh- so ADJ as to V (19th C.)