Marks the future, and is very often reduced to the sound / əl / or just / l / in speech.
e.g. it'll, I'll, she'll, etc..
syntax & semantics
- cannot be combined with (preceded or followed by) other modal verbs or "to"
- can be followed by the verbal base / bare infinitive (or nothing)
- has at least two main meanings (one "radical" (volition / future), one "epistemic" (certainty))
|can||could||capability / possibility|
|will||would||future / certainty / volonté|
|shall||should||value judgement / necessity|
|may||might||authorization / probability|
|must||logical necessity / certainty|
In the 19th century, shall was used with the 1st person singular or plural rather than will. This is no longer the case.