Reconstruction

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People

Presidents

  • Lincoln (Abraham) (1861-1865) [1]
  • Johnson (Andrew) (1865-1869) [2]
  • Grant (Ulysses) (1869-1877) [3]
  • Hayes (Rutherford) (1877-1881) [4]
  • Garfield (James) (1881) [5]
  • Arthur (Chester) (1881-1885) [6]
  • Cleveland (Grover) (1885-1889) [7]
  • Harrison (Benjamin) (1889-1893)[8]
  • Cleveland (Grover) (1893-1897) [9]

Others

  • Blaine (James) - Speaker of the House, twice Secretary of State (Garfield, Arthur), ran against Hayes for the Republican nomination in 1876, and was nominated in 1884, but lost to Grover Cleveland. Tainted by charges of corruption. [10]
  • Brownlow (William Gannaway) - methodist preacher, first post-war governor of Tennessee, newspaper editor, see rich page at Wikipedia [11], advocate of a strong test of loyalty to the Union for voting rights.
  • Cable (George Washington) - Louisiana author, texts available at Gutenberg, in particular his study of prisons (cf. de Tocqueville): [12]
  • Douglas (Frederic) - prominent abolitionist appointed president of the Freedmen's Savings Bank. Entry needs completion! Wikipedia [13]
  • Grady (Henry) - became managing editor of the Atlanta Constitution after having written an article entitled "The New South" in the Atlanta Herald vaunting industrial development and the railroads as the South's path to salvation. Sharply criticized by Tom Watson, a powerful leader of the Farmer's Alliance, who understood the program of "The New South" as a sell-out to the North. [14]
  • Harris (Joel Chandler) - newspaperman, author of Uncle Remus stories (Cf. Folktales), as well as another interesting book, Stories of Georgia, "The Creeks and the Creek war"
  • Houzeau (Jean-Charles) - Belgian journalist and astronomer, became the editor of the New Orleans Tribune in 1864, making it into a widely read journal whose influence spread far beyond Louisiana.
  • Philbrick (Edward S.) - oversaw the first attempt at Reconstruction on the Sea Islands.
  • Scott (Tom) -- president of the Texas-Pacific railroad
  • Small (Robert) - black war hero (the man who "stole" the Planter) who sparked a media frenzy when he was kicked off a Philadelphia streetcar in Jan 1865 for being black. This led to a number of Northern cities desegregating streetcars.
  • Washington (Booker T.) -- famous for his "Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition Speech" in 1895, his book (Up from Slavery) is available online [15]
  • Watson (Tom) - Eloquent spokesman for the Farmer's Alliance, later for the People's party, elected to the house of Representatives in Georgia in the 1890s, split with the Democratic party over its non-support for the Ocala Convention, and eventually ran for president. In his later life, his reputation as an anti-Semite became his determining characteristic.

Places

  • Davis Bend - Joe Davis' (Jefferson Davis' brother) prewar experiment to create an ideal slave community. Influence of Robert Owen. Later sold to Benjamin and Isaiah Montgomery, who were unable to make it profitable. Isaiah Montgomery would later found the town of Mound Bayou. Take the Mountain (University of Mississippi Outreach video)
  • Sea Islands - off the coast of South Carolina and Georgia. much publicized first attempt at reconstruction, Sherman authorized this effort at least partially in an attempt to free the army of the massive number of former that were following the army. Particular, as those freedmen originally from the Sea Islands had already had a certain degree of autonomy, and also because of the national coverage that it received (missionaries, investors, etc.)

Events

  • Crédit Mobilier Scandal -- tainted the Grant administration, and was a major issue in the press during the 1872 campaign. The Crédit Mobilier of America had the same owners/directors as the Union Pacific Railroad Company and engaged in double billing of the US government. [16]
  • Wheeling Convention (1861) -- the meeting at which the state of West Virginia was created by dint of its refusal to secede along with Virginia [17]

Parties

  • Democrats
  • Republicans
  • Whigs
  • People's Party
  • Greenbackers
  • The Farmer's Alliance: think Grapes of Wrath. Then go to the Wikipedia page :)... aka The Grange (texas), Farmer's League. v. Ocala convention

Institutions

  • Freedmen's Bureau -- created in March 1865, based on the reports of Owen, McKaye, and Howe (American Freedmen's Inquiry commission). Encouraged the notion of reparations, it had the power to rent 40-acre plots of confiscated land. It's full name: Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands.
  • New Orleans Tribune -- The paper's program included black suffrage, desegregation, equality before the law, and redistribution of plantations to the freedmen. The paper, founded in 1864 by Roudanez still exists today, though it is no longer bilingual French-English. [18]

Legislation

  • Southern Homestead Act - prevented ex-Confederates from homestead rights for one year. Applied from 1866-1876. [19] Repeal of this act was one of the key issues in the Compromise of 1877.
  • Wade-Davis bill -- 1864. Required delaying reconstruction in a State until more than half of the white men had taken the Ironclad Oath. Lincoln used a pocket veto to bury the bill, and was accused of "dictatorial usurpation" by the bill's authors.

Notions

  • Bourbon Democrats -- name given to conservative Southern democrats, with Whiggish tendencies (support of NE Democrat policies favoring industry, banks, etc.)
  • Carpetbaggers -- name given to Northerners coming South to take advantage of low prices after the Civil War, or to participate in Reconstruction as teachers, for example.
  • cracker -- disparaging name given to lower class / working class whites, especially those who pushed for segregation / Jim Crow laws
  • The Great Barbecue - name for the appropriations that facilitated in particular the building of railroads. The North profited disproportionately from these appropriations (from 1865-1873 out of a total of $103m, only $9.5m went to the South (source: Woodward citing Treasury Dept. figures))
  • Redeemers

Online Edition Project

  • W.E.Burhardt du Bois (1935), Black Reconstruction in America: An Essay Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in QAmerica, 1860-1880. @creoliste.fr