Difference between revisions of "By"

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("means" argument, answers the question how?)
("Means" argument, answers the question how?)
 
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* The mail usually gets here <u>by</u> noon.
 
* The mail usually gets here <u>by</u> noon.
  
=along / via / near / next to=
+
=Locative: along / via / near / next to=
  
 
*I live <u>by</u> the river.
 
*I live <u>by</u> the river.
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*We were sitting <u>by</u> the exit, so we could get back out quickly.
 
*We were sitting <u>by</u> the exit, so we could get back out quickly.
  
="means" argument, answers the question how?=
+
="Means" argument, answers the question how?=
  
 
(fr. <i>complement circonstantiel de moyen / instrument, etc.</i>)
 
(fr. <i>complement circonstantiel de moyen / instrument, etc.</i>)
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*<u>By</u> rearranging the seats, the bride kept the feuding uncles as far apart as she could.
 
*<u>By</u> rearranging the seats, the bride kept the feuding uncles as far apart as she could.
 
*We reached them <u>by</u> phone.
 
*We reached them <u>by</u> phone.
 +
*The video was subtitled <u>by</u> machine.
  
  
 
[[Category:100-en]]
 
[[Category:100-en]]

Latest revision as of 19:25, 23 September 2017

Agent

In the passive voice "by" introduces the noun doing the "agentive" action in the sentence. The grammatical subject is the "theme" or the patient.

agent = actor, patient = what is acted upon, theme = topic

  • This book was written by Charlotte Brontë.
  • The results of the older study have been replicated by several more recent ones.
  • Did you have to help your son with his homework or did he do it by himself?
  • Little has been written by mainstream sources about the question.

Deadline

  • Income taxes must be filed in the US by April 15th
  • We need get this fixed by the end of the day.
  • The mail usually gets here by noon.

Locative: along / via / near / next to

  • I live by the river.
  • I live by the school.
  • We were sitting by the exit, so we could get back out quickly.

"Means" argument, answers the question how?

(fr. complement circonstantiel de moyen / instrument, etc.)

  • By rearranging the seats, the bride kept the feuding uncles as far apart as she could.
  • We reached them by phone.
  • The video was subtitled by machine.