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"Then" is frequently used to indicate what happened, happens, or will happen next when telling a story. It is very similar to "alors" (at that time) and to "puis". It is also a very good substitute for the ungrammatical "After, ...".

  • She started with some small talk, but then she got down to business pretty quickly. The meeting was over in an hour. :)

at that time

  • We didn't realize how dangerous it was to cross the river via the train bridge back then. We could have been squashed!
  • You should turn off the electricity first; then you can work without worrying about electrocuting yourself.

Compare to "now".

  • Now you can find almost any song online somewhere; back then you had to buy a copy of the record to listen to a song over and over again.

now and then: de temps à autre

"when": at what time?

  • We didn't realize how dangerous it was when we used to take the train bridge to cross the river.

Logical entailment

Entailment is more or less a synonym for consequence.

  • Si X est vrai, alors Y est vrai
  • If X is true, then Y is true.

if and then are only really used together in formal contexts (math, programming). Most often it's the result of an inference:

Husband: I'm not feeling well, I'm going to stay home today.
Wife: Aha! You don't need your car, then? Do you mind if I take it? Mine is making weird noises and I need to bring a bunch of things into the office.
Husband: I have an appointment with the doctor this afternoon, but I can take yours if you'd like.
Wife: I'll be back for lunch, and I'll take mine in the afternoon.
Husband: Ah, ok then, no problem.